حنان مساعد سعد السريحي

 


      
 
الاسم الاول: 
حنان
اسم العائلة: 
السريحي
الدرجة العلمية: 
دكتوراة
مجال الدراسة: 
علوم إنسانية واجتماعية
المؤسسة التعليمية: 
University of York

 

 

مجال التميز

تميز دراسي وبحثي 

 

 

البحوث المنشورة

 

البحث (1):

 

عنوان البحث:

#iranelection: Hashtag Solidarity And The Transformation Of Online Life

رابط إلى البحث:

Click here 

تاريخ النشر:

11 May 2016

موجز عن البحث:

On 12 June 2009, the 10th Iranian presidential election was held. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad won the elections and secured his second term against runner up Mir-Hossein Mousavi. The official, but rather disputed, vote tally showed that Ahmadinejad had managed to secure 24.5 million votes (62.6%), while his opponent managed only 13.2 million votes (33.7%). In the wake of this election, there were two uprisings; the major and more impactful one was by the Iranian people who demanded a vote recount. The second uprising was a more virtual one, an uprising on social media that saw thousands of people from around the world show solidarity with the Iranian people.

In the aftermath of the election, millions believed that their vote was never counted or ignored. The state prevented free press, silenced activists and attempted to put an end to rebellious actions thus actively engaged in a violent suppression of the voices of the people. The end result was the death of anywhere between 36 and 150 people depending on the source and an estimated 4000 people arrested.

Supporters went to the streets to express their anger and rage against the announced results, which they considered fraudulent and deceptive. While we consider them taking to the street as a very normal behavior against election fraudulence, what was quite unexpected and surprising is the extent to which the Iranians used social media and even more was the success they found moving from local to global support.

This was the first time that social media was used in Iran in order to communicate with people from around the world, for the purpose spreading information and awareness about the ongoing protests in the country. Not only did they update people around the world about their demonstration but also, they allowed people around the world to comment on what they read and saw. Iranians used various social media services such as: Twitter, Facebook, Flickr, youtube, and Wikipedia as a tool to counter the heavily censored and government controlled

Iranian state media. The main purpose of this book is to narrate the story of the Iranian people during their demonstrations and how social media played a great role in it. So, it is relatively a descriptive book rather than analytical. Even though it is descriptive, it shows how social media supports people’s demonstrations. The book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, in addition for those who seek any information about the development of Iranian society since 1979. Furthermore, it is useful for students of political science, social media and communication, sociology and gender studies.

Based on the #iranelection on Twitter, one can say that it is the first times in modern history to see a hashtag for a political event go viral all over the world. The hashtag was also predominant inside Iran as well; people were using it on various social media sites to inform each other about what is going inside the country. People from around the world showed their supported Iranians in what became known as the Green Revolution. Just as one motto was used for the protests, ‘Where is my vote?’ the hashtag was used in an attempt to unify the information uploaded to social media under one banner.

Interestingly enough, this is the second time in modern Iranian history to see how media can play an effective role in supporting people during their anger and rebellion against the state. The first time was during the Islamic Revolution in 1979, when Iranians used to listen to Khomeini speeches recorded on cassette tapes in underground and home studios. The second time was during the 2009 green revolution, when the Iranians used Twitter and #iranelection.

The Iranian use of Twitter and other social media has created what was later known as the ‘citizen journalist’. Referring to the way that regular citizens have the ability to monitor what happens in front of their eyes, record the event, provide information and valid sources and then transmit all this to both the local community and on a global scale. As Mottaheda said ‘images of masses of people filling the vast boulevards, squares, and bridges of Iranian city space were posted to Twitter and Facebook within minutes’ (p. 3). This situation of urgency established what Mottaheda called the sense of simultaneity and solidarity. And one of the most effective bloody aggressions of Iranian state was the killing of Neda Agha-Soltan, who was murdered by the Basij, the state paramilitary. The #Neda was ‘the highest-ranking

Hashtag on June 20, 2009, indicating tens of thousands of posts on the day of her death’ (pp. 6–7).

What is important here is that during 2009 Iranian demonstration our perception of social media has changed and its uses have developed, that is, People started to use social media in an unprecedented way to inform other people around the world about the development of Iranian revolution and the other people around the world used to retweet what they received and publicize it. In addition, some of the more popular and highly influential international channels such as CNN have changed their reporting strategy. CNN did not do much active reporting or create original content during the revolution but what they did instead was searching and finding information, pictures and videos online and then rebroadcast them. This has played a very essential role in the creation and development of what became known as citizen journalism. The year of 2009 represented a very important benchmark for the mainstream media to depend heavily on news uploaded and posted from social media websites such as Twitter, youtube, and Facebook. The situation has been changing since the 2009 Iranian uprisings; social media has become an essential element in mainstream media. The mass media today depends on normal people, preferably with some sort of smart phone and internet access, which see, witness and report. This is a huge change from how people usually got their news from the perspective of mainstream international news agencies. For the first time people can now get information and news from other unaffiliated sources.

#iranelection is a book written mainly for Western readers to understand the story of 2009 Iranian Revolution and how the global solidarity with them motivated Iranians to show Western societies what happened, how it happened and why it happened. ‘The hashtag went from being a localized practice among smaller groups on Twitter to become an international practice in writing posts more generally’ (p. 16). Even if the revolution was oppressed by the hands of Islamic regime, the revolution taught the world how we can use new technology, new mass media to announce to everyone in the world about the bloody behaviours of oppressive regimes.

On this matter, one cannot ignore the later effective role of social media, and the part it has played in the uprisings that took hold of several Arab countries starting from 2010. These uprisings became known as the Arab Spring. The vast majority of them were influenced by some sort of action taken on social media. For example, one of the first protests that took place on the 25th of January, 2011 in Egypt, started off as a Facebook event. The country’s internet was mostly shut down a few days later as the protests increased in intensity. The social media tactics of #iranelection protesters have been successfully replicated in other countries experiencing violence and injustice by the state.

INFORMATION, COMMUNICATION & SOCIETY 1699

The book is generally a description of the 2009 Iranian Revolution, but was concluded without offering answers to some of the important questions it raises. Some of these questions include: how important are social media in the success of revolutions and social change? Why did the Islamic revolution of 1979 succeed, while only depending on recorded cassettes and in the face of opposition from the West, while the 2009 revolution failed even though it depended on a larger array of sophisticated technologies such as Twitter and Facebook and enjoyed global support and solidarity? Although the book does not answer these questions directly, it definitely gives us an early prediction about the importance of using social media in supporting people’s demonstrations. It also provides a valuable account of the potential role of social media in uprisings within authoritarian regimes and will be of interest to a wide audience. 

 

 

المؤتمرات العلمية:

 

المؤتمر (1):

 

عنوان المؤتمر:

The WEI International Academic Conference 

تاريخ الإنعقاد:

  13-15 November 2018

مكان الإنعقاد:

Rome - Italy

طبيعة المشاركة:

Oral presentation

عنوان المشاركة:

Women and Elections

ملخص المشاركة:

The Impact of Social Media on Women’s Civic Engagement in Saudi Arabia

An Empirical Study of Saudi Women Councillors

This is a case study that took place in the context of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  In the lights of the many political, social and economic changes that have been in place in the Kingdom lately, women were allowed more freedom. One of the gains of this era is allowing Saudi women to participate in civil services elections. The primary goal of this research is to examine the issue through a case study analysis of the recent election of Saudi women councillors by examining whether they see themselves as role models for Saudi women and how the use of social media shapes their new identities, and how they communicate with and engage their female constituents.

The questions of the current research are as follow:

-       What impact can the recent election of Saudi women Councillors, within a context of more highly educated and socially networking young women citizens, has upon the level and styles of civic participation and engagement of women in Saudi Arabia?

-     How do the elected female councillors perceive their role in relation to the development of political change in KSA?

-    What are the new experiences of using social media for Saudi women councillors as means of engaging with citizens?

-    To what extent and in what ways do Saudi women councillors feel that social media supplies them with a new space that helps them express their feelings and opinions without restraint?

-     Can social media increase the social and civic capacity of Saudi women councillors with regards to their activities and participation?  

The findings suggest that the 2015 elections for Saudi women represent a unique event in the modern history of the Kingdom. However, the respondents confirm that these elections are only a step on the road, and do not exaggerate about these elections as a qualitative leap in the life of Saudi women. Although the election event itself is a qualitative development, the results have not significantly affected the lives of Saudi women. This does not degrade the importance of allowing Saudi women to take part in the elections. It is evidenced that more research is required to investigate the phenomena after few more years.

 

المرفقالحجم
_مؤتمر روما.pdf‏269.72 ك.بايت