موجز عن البحث:
This paper empirically investigates two
main points: application of the VECM test to examine the relationship between
economic growth and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation using municipal
services, GDP and population growth; and the application of the OLS
regression to validate the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for
MSW over the period of 1980-2012 in Saudi Arabia. The results show that there
is a long-standing relationship between the variables under examination, and
that the EKC hypothesis is not valid for MSW in Saudi Arabia. Even though
there is an inverted U-shaped because the turning point is very high compared
with GDP in that period. Saudi Arabia needs to implement new policies and
adopt new technologies that help to reduce MSW generation in order to achieve
sustainable development in future.
Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is named for Kuznets (1955) who
hypothesised the relationship between GDP per capita and environmental
pollution for several indicators. EKC idea is that explain the inverted-U
relationship: at low income level environmental degradation increase, but at
high GDP per capita levels economic growth will improvement of environmental
quality. Over the past two decades many researchers have been applied the EKC
to examine the relationship between economic growth and global warming for
many of countries through used several pollutants.
paper chose Saudi Arabia due to there is not empirical studies that examine
the EKC hypothesis to test the relationship between economic growth and CO2
emissions in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Saudi Arabia is one of oil producers and
it depends on oil for increase economic growth, thus this in turn affects on
CO2 emissions. The main aim of this study is that test EKC hypothesis is it
valid for Saudi Arabia. Based on literature review that examined the EKC
hypothesis and GHGs in other countries, the most empirical studies used
pollution indicator, such as CO2, and SO2 also they used GDP per capita and
GDP per capita squared as variables in their models. Thus, the dependent
variable under consideration in this study is CO2 and it was taken from The
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) online database and the
independent variables GDP per capita got from The World Bank online database.
This paper examined three equations and the empirical methodology began with
unit root tests to determining degree of integration of series to avoid
spurious regression. The next step was the Johansen and Juselius procedure
(1990) for testing co-integration among variables, and then applied the
Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression to estimate long-run relationship.
Finally, we estimate turning point for Saudi Arabia. The results showed that
models in this paper follow The EKC hypothesis inverted U-shape except one
model take an N-shape. In conclusion, Saudi Arabia still needs to find
another income source instead to depend on oil in order to reduce GHGs emissions
and adopt new technologies that help to achieve sustainable development.
However, the remainder of this paper is organized as follows: next section is
a theoretical foundation of EKC hypothesis. Section (3) a summary of the
literature review. Methodology and data are given in sections (4), empirical
results in section (5). Finally, section (6) draws conclusions on the basis
of these findings.