موجز عن البحث:
The purpose of this study is to
evaluate acromion geometry in relation to rotator cuff tears. Materials and
Methods: Thirty pairs of scapulae from 20 females and 10 males, average age
82 years (range 62 to 101 years), were scanned and measurements taken using a
3D microscribe digitizer and Rhino software. Main Results: The mean angles of
acromion tilt and slope were 38.70± 5.91° and 48.87± 9.94° respectively,
while those for lateral acromial and acromial to glenoid were 81.13± 8.72°
and 182.80± 12.09°, respectively. The acromial (anterior and posterior tip)
to glenoid distances were 28.7 ± 3.77 mm and 20.75 ± 4.45 mm, respectively.
Left shoulders also were showed higher angles (P<0.05) of the acromion to
glenoid than right, 186.49° and 179.16°. Posterior acromial to glenoid
distance showed a significant difference (P<0.05) between females and
males, 23.13 mm and 26.37 mm, respectively. Conclusion: There were no
significant differences in relation to rotator cuff tears. Understanding the
geometry of the acromion will improve surgical intervention in shoulder
موجز عن البحث:
Understanding the geometry of the
coracoid and coracoacromial arch will improve surgical intervention in
Thirty pairs of scapulae from 20 female
and 10 male deceased donors, average age of 82 years (range, 62-101 years),
were scanned and measurements taken using the 3-dimensional (3D) MicroScribe
digitizer (Immersion Corp, San Jose CA, USA) and Rhino software (McNeel North
America, Seattle, WA, USA).
The following mean angles were
determined: coracoid slope, 44° ± 11°; coracoid deviation, 35° ± 6°; coracoid
root to glenoid, 115° ± 14°; coracoid head to glenoid, 110° ± 11°; scapular
spine angle, 35° ± 6°; and coracoacromial angle, 63° ± 9°. The following mean
distances were also determined: coracoid height, 10 ± 3 mm; coracoacromial
distance, 42 ± 7 mm; coracoacromial arch height, 20 ± 5 mm; and coracoid
(anterior, 29 ± 6 mm; middle, 20 ± 4 mm; posterior tip, 18 ± 6 mm) to the
glenoid fossa. The coracoid root-to-glenoid angle was significantly
correlated with the coracoacromial angle. In addition, coracoid slope was
significantly correlated with coracoid root-to-glenoid angle and also with
coracoid deviation. Left shoulders had a significantly higher
coracoid-to-glenoid angle (P < .029) than right shoulders. Women had a
significantly higher coracoid root-to-glenoid angle than men (P < .042),
and men had a significantly higher coracoid deviation (P < .011), anterior
(P < .006) and posterior coracoid-to-glenoid distances (P < .03), and
coracoacromial arch height (P < .07) than women.
the first time that the 3D MicroScribe digitizer has been used to evaluate
the geometry of the coracoacromial arch and coracoid process.
Locating the acromion and coracoid
processes of the scapular is essential in shoulder surgery. Sixty scapulae
from 40 female and 20 male cadavers, average age 82 years (range 62 to 101),
were scanned and measurements taken using a 3D microscribe digitizer and
Rhino software. Four angles were measured with respect to the centre of the
glenoid fossa. The mean angles of the following were: acromion head 182.83˚ ±
12.07, acromion root 114.5˚ ± 9.12, coracoid head 109.77˚ ± 11.04 and
coracoid root 114.71˚ ± 13.87. There was a moderate correlation between the
angles of coracoid head and root to the glenoid: r = 0.510, P<.01 (n=58).
However, there was no correlation between the angles of the acromion head and
root to the centre of the glenoid.
Angles of coracoid head showed a significant difference (P<0.05)
between females and males, being 112.4˚ and 104.5˚ respectively. Left
shoulders also were showed angular values (P<0.05) of the coracoid and
acromion head than right shoulders: there were no significant differences in
relation to rotator cuff tears or acromion spurs. Understanding the
measurements of specific points in the shoulder will improve surgical
intervention in shoulder surgery.
the measurements of the anterior cruciate ligament on Thiel embalmed cadavers
will improve surgical intervention Thiel cadavers’ trails in ligaments
reconstruction as model.
Thiel embalmed knees were dissected from 2 males and 2 females deceased
donors, average age 73 (range, 71- 90 years), were prepared and measurements
taken using high accuracy digital Vernier calliper 0-200mm.
following means of anterior cruciate ligament were determined: ligaments
length (anteromedial bundle 36.5 ± 4.5 mm); (posterolateral bundle 35.6 ± 6.1
mm); total ligament length 39.3 ± 6 mm; mid-distance ligament width for
anteromedial bundle 4.11 ± 1.7 mm; mid-distance ligament width for
posterolateral bundle 3.7 ± 1 mm; Femoral anterior cruciate footprint length
and width for anteromedial bundle 9.5 ± 4.4 mm and 6 ± 4.48 mm, respectively;
femoral anterior cruciate footprint length and width for posterolateral
bundle 8.4 ± 3.2 mm and 6.2 ± 2.5 mm, respectively. Tibial anterior cruciate
footprint length and width for anteromedial bundle 7.3 ± 2.3 mm and 5.1 ± 1.3
mm, respectively; tibial anterior cruciate footprint length and width for
posterolateral bundle 8.8 ± 2.7 mm and 5.5 ± 1.8 mm, respectively.
plateau anterior cruciate ligament anteromedial bundle position from medial,
lateral, anterior and posterior margin – 33.2 ± 5.7 mm, 36.4 ± 6.16 mm, 14.94
± 3.5 mm and 31.4 ± 4 mm, respectively; tibial plateau anterior cruciate
ligament posterolateral bundle position from medial, lateral, anterior and
posterior margin 34.82 ± 4.24 mm, 35.10 ± 5.21 mm, 18.4 ± 6.13 mm and 26 ±
3.7 mm, respectively; tibial plateau anteroposterior and mediolateral
diameters 52.6 ± 4.9 mm and 76 ± 5.7mm, respectively.
Conclusion: Thiel embalmed knees are
reliable for surgical training and show the ligaments as near nature.